tl,dr: Employees: You should quit. Customers: CVS leadership are sociopaths enabled by your continued patronage; stop shopping there. Other employers: Give ex-CVS employees a break.
As previously mentioned in @OP+1bvFSS3e, I positively hate that this stuff is pushed on customers who just want to make a purchase. I get that some customers want to sign up for it. But there are plenty of people who want to stay private, thank you very much.
So because many customers opt to stay private, CVS leadership takes it out on rank and file employees in the form of a performance review penalty?! I can confidently say without any hyperbole whatsoever: That is straight up sociopathy.
Let me repeat this: CVS leadership is sociopathic. That claim isn't in a "well I hate what they are doing, so I will call them names" sense. That claim is made in the "look up the damn textbook definition and confirm for yourself" sense.
Since I won't sign up for any of this, and since I don't want to get the retail-level employees in trouble, the best solution is to just not shop at CVS. This is broadly what @OP+1bHkpEGA suggests, and now that is very clear. In fact, now it is clear that patronizing this store just encourages this obnoxious behavior.
To other customers: Stop shopping at CVS. Seriously. Try other retailers and you will see the difference in service.
To CVS employees. You have my empathy. And here is advice I never thought I'd give to a large group of employees: Quit. There are clear and present signs that your role at CVS is to serve as a scapegoat.
To other employers: Do your own research, both here and at r/CVS. Ask yourself "would I really hold a negative reference, or a no-notice resignation, against a candidate under these circumstances?" You don't have to buy in to CVS's lunacy. You can decide for yourself if you will take any notice of any negative remarks from CVS management about a potential hire.